The World Health Organization defines miscarriage as spontaneous expulsion of a human fetus or embryo weighing 500 grams or less which corresponds to a fetal age of 20-24 weeks or even less. Simply put, miscarriage is a stage in any pregnancy wherein the fetus or embryo cannot survive outside the mother’s womb. Miscarriage usually or often occurs before the 13th week of pregnancy although some also happens up to the 20-24 weeks of pregnancies and it happens to 1out 6 recognized pregnancies. Study shows that 60% to 70% of recognized and unrecognized pregnancies are lost even without the woman ever having known she was pregnant. Those miscarriages that occur before the 8th week, 30% have no fetus associated in the sac or placenta. This is called blighted ovum where women are surprised to learn that there was never an embryo inside the sac.
Abnormalities in the womb or uterus such as a septum, or a bridge tissue separating the uterus into sections would be a great possibility of miscarriage. In this case it would be impossible for an embryo to be implanted in the uterus. Additionally, a uterus that slanted to either side or towards the front has higher risk of miscarriage because the embryo will embed very low in the uterus.
Other Most Common Symptoms and signs of a miscarriage are the following;
1. Vaginal Bleeding and Cramping
An impending miscarriage will often exhibit some distinct symptoms, such as vaginal bleeding. It may be very mild, moderate or severe. No known particular pattern as to how long it will last. Having this symptom does not always mean a miscarriage.
2. Abdominal Pain
Severe pain in one side of the abdomen should always be investigated as an emergency, specifically if it is during the early pregnancies. It should also be noted that cramping at the abdominal or in the lower back area is not always present during a miscarriage and it may vary in its severity.
There are also other definite symptoms of miscarriage that will include weight-loss, whitish-pink discharge, cramping or aching contractions somewhere from five to twenty minutes. Early pregnancies often exhibit signs of morning sickness or soreness of breast. Fading of such signs may be an indicator of miscarriage, although this is an unreliable indicator, one should be mentioned to your GP.
At times, the causes of miscarriages are not possible to determine. It may be due to problems unknown to the mother such as Chromosomal disorders which increases as the mother gets older, it may be due to infections such as Malaria (severe cases), rubella or herpes.
In all these cases, a mother should immediately see her doctor and or midwife. There’s nothing more valuable than early detection of imminent miscarriage.
Chlamydia infection is commonly referred to as the “silent” disease. It is the most common contracted sexually transmitted disease (STD), highly curable if diagnosed immediately and easy to treat, although it usually exhibit unnoticeable symptoms. Once you suspect you have chlamydia or think that you might have been infected with it, it is very necessary to get tested immediately. Untreated chlamydia infection will often cause serious damage to reproductive organs in men and women. Since this type of infection is easily transmitted through sex in humans, and since it affects most teens and young adults it is highly recommended that at least a testing should be done once a year, with or without any signs or symptoms. A screening test for women with higher risk of infections like pregnant women and those with new sexual partners or those with multiple sexual partners should also be done at least once a year.
There were simple and varied diagnosing and testing procedures that can be performed on chlamydia infections. The doctor will usually do urine test in men and cotton swab testing on women. Swab testing in women is just similar to the Pap smear test wherein a device called a speculum is inserted into the vagina to keep it open, and then a cotton swab is inserted through the speculum and brushed the inside of the cervix.
Typically, the most effective and inexpensive treatment is just a single dose of a powerful 1 gram of azithromycin antibiotic given as fluid. Of course there were also other recommended forms of treatment such as doxycycline antibiotic in pill form taken twice a day for 7 days which is also as effective as azithromycin if taken perfectly, but has a higher risk of missing the doses prescribed. A pregnant woman can also be administered with an alternative treatment. These recommended treatments are similarly effective although women with more severe chlamydia infections may require hospitalizations. Your partner must also be encouraged to be treated even if no symptom persists because it is highly worth noting that, a person treated for chlamydia infection can be re-infected by their partners. It is very advisable that you should abstain from sex especially those taking the doxycycline until you completed the prescribed regimen and that all recent sex parties should be treated.
Over 95% of the people treated for chlamydia can completely recovers, however the treatment procedures or the drugs itself cannot reverse the damage that the infections might have done to the body earlier before the administration of the treatment.
In both men and women, it is not uncommon for both with chlamydia infection not to have symptom, and that may pose high risk of unknowingly infecting a partner. As a sexually transmitted infection, chlamydia is transmitted from one to another during intimate sexual contact. Although, it is very uncommon that chlamydia infections affect parts of the body other than the reproductive organ in men and women, particularly rectum, eyes and throat it cannot be denied that it greatly contribute a high degree of discomforts and easiness, especially if the rectum and eyes are infected. Fortunately for one, if the throat is infected, it does not show any symptoms.
In both sexes, men and/or women can be infected by chlamydia through unguarded vaginal sex, unguarded anal sex, unguarded oral sex, genital interaction with a unknowing infected partner, or through the sharing of sex toys. Eyes can have conjunctivitis if infected sperm or vaginal liquid comes in contact with the eyes, although it’s not very clear if infection can be extended by transmitting infected sperm or vaginal liquid on the fingers or just by chafing female genitals.
Because chlamydia is very a communicable infection, a unknowing mother with chlamydia can passed the disease to her children during childbirth. The infection will often progress after birth which can result in problems like inflammations and discharges in the child’s eyes and even pneumonia.
Due to its unnoticeable symptom characteristics, many chlamydia infections remain undiagnosed until signs and symptoms appears 1-3 weeks after coming in contact with chlamydia and often until it spread to other parts of the body.
In women, some noticeable symptoms of genital chlamydia are the cystitis or pain when urinating, changes in vaginal discharges, pain in the lower part of the abdomen, bleeding and/or pain during sexual intercourse, noticeable bleeding after sex and bleeding in between monthly periods. If left untreated, this may cause infertility, ectopic pregnancies and miscarriage in women.
In men, genital chlamydia symptoms and signs are more common than women. Some men may notice a white, watery or cloudy discharge at the top of the penis, pain in the testicles and or a sharp pain when urinating. Significantly, some mild symptoms and discomforts in men will disappear within two to three days, but it does not necessarily follow that the infection also disappears. This means that you can pass it to your sexual partner unknowingly, and you will be at higher risk of complications such as inflammation and swelling of the testicles, reactivate arthritis and finally infertility.
Cancer of the Testis
Over his lifetime, a man is risk of cancer of the testis or more commonly referred to as testicular cancer. It is a kind of cancer that usually occurs and progresses in one of the testicle of a man. The most common symptom is a lump swelling in the testicle. Roughly in the US alone, around 8,000 cases of cancer of the testicle or testis had been identified each year. This testicular cancer is most common among teens and young adult males between the ages of 15-39 years old. It is also has the highest curable rate of all known cancers at over 90% or even 100% if the cancerous cells has not spread to other parts of the body, in medical term “metastasized” or simply termed as stage 4 cancer. Generally, 95% of testis cancer that are found in the testicles are germ cell tumors, and most of the remaining 5% are sex cord-gonadal stromal tumors obtained from a cell tissue of the testis that generally considered the main source of male sex hormone and more importantly testosterone or any elongated striated cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis.
To some extent, not all abnormal masses or lumps found in the testicle are tumors cells and not all testicular tumors cells are malignant. There are also many other testicular conditions that may be found that are not cancerous such as testicular presence or formation of gravel, epididymis cysts, and appendix testis. The most current, decisive and the least hurtful of treatment are necessary to ensure correct diagnosis. The treatment can be through blood tests markers but the most definitive diagnosis is thru the analysis of a specimen by qualified doctors like a pathologists. It is encouraged that men must examine their testicles at least once a month especially if they come from the family with cancer history. Otherwise it is the right time for men 15-39 years old to start seeing doctors when the following symptoms of testicular cancer have been detected.
1. Lump in any one of the testis. Fortunately in this case no two testicles can be affected by this testicular cancer.
2. Pain or aching in the lower abdominal area or scrotum
3. A feeling of weightiness in the scrotum
4. Breast enlargement due to hormonal effects
5. Lower back pain
6. Shortness and/or difficulties of breath or coughing
If by and large, surgical treatment is necessary, biopsy should not be performed for it raises the risk of migrating cells to the scrotum.
During pregnancy many expectant mothers will undergo occasional abdominal pain in different parts of the body. Although it is at times frightening, it is harmless and usually a normal occurrence. But even how normal or harmless the condition is, it should not be taken for granted especially during the early pregnancy. It may suggest that the uterus is preparing the burden of carrying the baby through nine months or it may be a sign of serious developments. Pain in the lower abdomen accompanied by fever, chills, bleeding and spotting can sometimes leads or may be a sign to more serious health problems in the well-being of both the mother and the baby.
Abdominal pain during pregnancies may be associated with the following most common occurrences, like;
1. Ectopic pregnancies. This is a serious and unusual condition of pregnancy that occurs in the early part of pregnancy wherein a fertilized egg implants outside a mother’s uterus when the usual and most appropriate is that it is supposed to be attached to the woman’s fallopian tubes. Naturally, this condition can usually be detected during the first week of pregnancy. It may rupture and is life threatening. Usual symptoms are pelvic and abdominal pain, continuous or intermittent vaginal bleeding and spotting, worsening pain during physical activity, pain from the tip of the elbow, coughing and dizziness.
2. Miscarriage. Miscarriage is the termination of a pregnancy in the first 24 weeks but it is most common before the 13th weeks. Occasional pain in the lower abdomen is a sign of an impending miscarriage few hours to several days after vaginal bleeding or spotting. Symptom of miscarriage usually includes light and/or heavy vaginal bleeding, and menstrual-like cramps that progressively increases its intensity. Consult your doctor whenever you are experiencing these symptoms.
3. Premature labor also term as preterm labor is contractions that dilate or efface the cervix that happens within 37 weeks of pregnancy. Symptom such as increased or a changed in the kind of vaginal discharge that becomes watery or mucus like and or just with a tinged in blood, vaginal bleeding and spotting, menstrual like constricting of more than 4 contractions in one hour, abdominal pain and increase compression in the pelvic area. Call your midwife or a doctor immediately if you have these pain and symptoms.
There are a number of discomforts and pains associated with pregnancy, but a woman or an expectant mother for the matter should try to remain calm irrespective of what you may be experiencing. Calling your doctor or midwife will clear everything.